Ielts Writing task 2 – Cấu trúc bài viết

Ielts Writing task 2 – Cấu trúc bài viết

Để bài viết được đánh giá tốt về ‘coherence’ và ‘cohesion’ có nghĩa là thống nhất, mạch lạc, gắn kết thì yếu tố sắp xếp cấu trúc của bài về đoạn, câu, ý đóng vai trò rất quan trọng trong writing task 2.

Một cấu trúc phổ biến thường dùng viết task 2 mà phần lớn các giáo viên trên thế giới sử dụng hướng dẫn học sinh là cấu trúc 4 đoạn như sau:

Introduction – Mở bài
Body paragraph 1 – Đoạn thân bài thứ I
Body paragraph 2 – Đoạn thân bài thứ 2
Conclusion – Kết luận

Tuy nhiên trong writing task 2 chúng ta có một số loại câu hỏi phổ biến khác nhau, do đó trong cấu trúc 4 đoạn ở trên, dàn ý và cách sắp xếp câu cũng được biến đổi đôi chút cho phù hợp với từng loại câu hỏi. Tùy theo từng cách tiếp cận và triển khai của từng giáo viên mà cách hướng dẫn viết sẽ khác nhau. Ở bài này cô sẽ giới thiệu với các em cách viết của thầy Christopher Pell qua trang ieltsadvantage.com. Cô thấy cấu trúc thầy đưa ra cho từng dạng câu hỏi rất dễ triển khai và rõ ràng. Các em tham khảo và luyện tập xem có phù hợp với phong cách viết của mình không nhé.

Các em lưu ý là không có một cấu trúc viết nào đảm bảo cho các em đạt được band điểm cao mà nó chỉ là nhân tố hỗ trợ cho các em có được bài viết đạt được tiêu chí ‘coherence’ và ‘cohesion’. Ngoài yếu tố này, bài viết cần phải sử dụng tốt về từ vựng, ngữ pháp, các ý trả lời chính xác vào câu hỏi thì mới có thể đạt được band điểm cao.

Có 5 loại câu hỏi phổ biến trong writing task 2:

Opinion (Agree or Disagree) – nêu ý kiến (đồng ý hay không)
Advantages and Disadvantages – thuận lợi và bất lợi
Problem and Solution – vấn đề và giải pháp
Discussion (Discuss both view) – thảo luận (thảo luận về các quan điểm)
Two-part Question – câu hỏi 2 phần

1. Opinion Questions (Agree or Disagree)

Câu hỏi này thường có các từ hỏi như sau:
What is your opinion?
Do you agree or disagree?
To what extent do you agree or disagree?

E.g.
Computers are being used more and more in education and so there will soon be no role for the teacher in education.
To what extent do you agree or disagree?

Structure
Introduction
Sentence 1- Paraphrase Question
Sentence 2- Thesis Statement (It is agreed…/It is disagreed…/This essay agrees/disagrees…)
Sentence 3- Outline Sentence (This essay will discuss….)

Main Body Paragraph 1
Sentence 1- Topic Sentence
Sentence 2- Explain Topic Sentence
Sentence 3- Example
Sentence 4- Concession

Main Body Paragraph 2
Sentence 1- Topic Sentence
Sentence 2- Explain Topic Sentence
Sentence 3- Example
Sentence 4- Concession

Conclusion
Sentence 1- Summary
Sentence 2- Recommendation or Prediction

Sample Answer

It is argued that IT is playing an ever increasing role in schools and universities and one day teachers will be obsolete. It is disagreed that technology will one day replace educators. This essay will discuss, firstly the limitations of technology in education and secondly, the essential role teachers play in maintaining discipline in the classroom, followed by a reasoned conclusion.

Technology may be able to help students with some things but it has many limitations. I.T. can not educate people as effectively as real human beings because computers can not detect things such as context, emotions and how an individual learns. A prime example is language learning, in which teachers need to explain not only individual words but how these words work in different situations. However, there may come a time in the very distant future when computers are able to carry out these tasks.

Computers are also unable to ensure good classroom management. A computer may be able to provide a student with lots of information, but it will not be able to motivate or discipline students when they display unacceptable behaviour. For instance, unruly students could simply switch the device off and do nothing for the rest of the class. Nevertheless, this may not be a problem for highly motivated adult students.

In conclusion, it is not likely that electronic devices will replace teachers in the future because of current limitations in technology and the requirement for teachers to maintain good behaviour in the the classroom. It is predicted that computers will play an ever increasing role in the classroom but will never fully replace humans.

2. Advantages and Disadvantages QuestionsIELTS Essay Structures

Các từ thường xuất hiện ở dạng này:
Discuss the advantages and disadvantages.
Discuss the advantages and disadvantages and give your own opinion.

E.g.
Computers are being used more and more in education.
Discuss the advantages and disadvantages and give your own opinion.

Structure

Introduction
Sentence 1- Paraphrase Question
Sentence 2- Outline Sentence

Main Body Paragraph 1
Sentence 1- State One Advantage
Sentence 2- Expand/Explain Advantage
Sentence 3- Example
Sentence 4- Result

Main Body Paragraph 2
Sentence 1- State One Disadvantage
Sentence 2- Expand/Explain Advantage
Sentence 3- Example
Sentence 4- Result

Conclusion
Sentence 1- Summary
Sentence 2- Opinion

Sample Answer

It is argued that technology is playing an every increasing role in schools and universities. This essay will firstly, discuss student freedom as one of the main advantages of this and secondly, outline decreasing levels of face to face contact as one of the main disadvantages, followed by a reasoned conclusion.

One of the principle advantages of an increase in the use electronic devices in education is the autonomy it provides students. Students have the freedom to focus on whatever topic or subject they want and study it in depth through the internet. A prime example of this is the amount of online university courses available to students, covering a myriad of subjects, that up until recently were unavailable to most learners. This has resulted in more people studying third level degrees than ever before, at a pace and schedule that suits them.

The main disadvantage associated with increasing use of technology in education is the decrease in face to face interaction between students. Students spend more time looking at computer screens by themselves than interacting with each other. For instance, the recent explosion in smart phone use has been at the expense of genuine human interaction. This results in soft skills, such as verbal communication and empathy, being effected.

In conclusion, the benefits technology brings to education, such as student autonomy, must be weighed against the drawbacks, such as negative effects on human interaction. Overall, the educational benefits outweigh the disadvantages because human beings will always want human contact and most people will not solely use IT for education.

3. Discuss Both Views Question (Discussion Essay)

Các từ hỏi thường xuất hiện:
Discuss both points of view and give your opinion.

E.g.
Computers are being used more and more in education. Some people say that this is a positive trend, while others argue that it is leading to negative consequences.
Discuss both sides of this argument and then give your own opinion.

Structure

Introduction
Sentence 1- Paraphrase Question and/or state both view points.
Sentence 2- Thesis Statement
Sentence 3- Outline Sentence

Main Body Paragraph 1
Sentence 1- State first viewpoint
Sentence 2- Discuss first viewpoint
Sentence 3- Reason why you agree or disagree with viewpoint
Sentence 4- Example to support your view

Main Body Paragraph 2
Sentence 1- State second viewpoint
Sentence 2- Discuss second viewpoint
Sentence 3- Reason why you agree or disagree with viewpoint
Sentence 4- Example to support your view

Conclusion
Sentence 1- Summary
Sentence 2- State which one is better or more important

Sample Answer

There is an ever increasing use of technology, such as tablets and laptops, in the classroom. It is often argued that this is a positive development, whilst others disagree and think it will lead to adverse ramifications. It is agreed that an increase in technology is beneficial to students and teachers. This essay will discuss both points of view before coming to a reasoned conclusion.

It is clear that the internet has provided students with access to more information than ever before. Moreover, learners have the ability to research and learn about any subject at the touch of a button. It is therefore agreed that technology is a very worthwhile tool for education. Wikipedia is a prime example, where students can simply type in any keyword and gain access to in-depth knowledge quickly and easily.

However, many disagree and feel that technology deprives people of real human interaction. Human interaction teaches people valuable skills such as discourse, debate and empathy. Despite this, human interaction is still possible through the internet and this essay disagrees technology should be dismissed for this reason. For instance, Skype and Facebook make it possible for people to interact in ways that were never before possible.

While the benefits of technology, particularly the internet, allow students to tap in to limitless sources of information, some still feel that people should be wary of this new phenomena and not allow it to curb face to face interaction. However, as long as we are careful to keep in mind the importance of human interaction in education, the educational benefits are clearly positive.

4. Problem and Solution Questions

Các từ hỏi thường xuất hiện:
Problem and solution.
Cause and solution.

E.g.
Students are becoming more and more reliant on computers.
What are some of the problems associated with reliance on computers, and what are some of the possible solutions?

Structure

Introduction
Sentence 1- Paraphrase Question
Sentence 2- Outline Sentence

Main Body Paragraph 1
Sentence 1- State Problem
Sentence 2- Explain problem
Sentence 3- Result
Sentence 4- Example

Main Body Paragraph 2
Sentence 1- State Solution
Sentence 2- Explain Solution
Sentence 3- Example

Conclusion
Sentence 1- Summary
Sentence 2- Recommendation or Prediction

Sample Answer

Learners are becoming ever more dependent on technology, such as the internet and mobile devices. This essay will discuss one of the main problems associated with dependence on computers and suggest a viable solution, before coming to a reasoned conclusion.

The principal problem with over reliance on technology, such as tablets and computers, is plagiarism. Students often use search engines to answer a question and simply copy the text from a website, rather than thinking about the question. This practice is not only prohibited in schools and universities, but also stunts a student’s intellectual development. For example, many teachers complain that students copy web pages straight from Wikipedia word for word rather than giving a reasoned answer to their questions.

A solution to this worrying problem is asking students to email their answers to teachers and teachers using anti-plagiarism software to detect copying. Moreover, students would be made aware of this practice and this would inspire them to answer questions using their own words, rather than someone else’s. For instance, many universities already use this kind software to scan course work for plagiarism and it could be extended to include all homework, by learners in both secondary and tertiary education.

In summary, one of the main problems with over-use of technology in education is plagiarism and this can be solved through the use of plagiarism detection software. It is predicted that more and more students’ will email their work to their teacher and this work will be scrutinised for plagiarism.

5. Two-Part Questions

Các từ hỏi thường xuất hiện:
Thông thường sẽ có một câu dẫn đề và theo sau là 2 câu hỏi.

E.g.
As most people spend a major part of their adult life at work, job satisfaction is an important element of individual wellbeing.
What factors contribute to job satisfaction?
How realistic is the expectation of job satisfaction for all workers?

Structure

Introduction
Sentence 1- Paraphrase Question
Sentence 2- Outline Sentence (mention both questions)

Main Body Paragraph 1
Sentence 1- Answer first question directly
Sentence 2- Explain why
Sentence 3- Further explain
Sentence 4- Example

Main Body Paragraph 2
Sentence 1- Answer second question directly
Sentence 2- Explain why
Sentence 3- Further explain
Sentence 4- Example

Conclusion
Sentence 1- Summary

Sample Answer

As the majority of adults spend most of their time at work, being content with your career is a crucial part of a person’s health and happiness. This essay will first discuss which elements lead to job satisfaction and it will then address the question of how likely it is that everyone can be happy with their job.

The two most important things that lead to someone being satisfied at work are being treated with respect by managers and being compensated fairly. If those more senior than you respect you as a person and the job you are doing then you feel like you are valued. A fair salary and benefits are also important considerations because if you feel you are being underpaid you will either resent your bosses or look for another job. There two factors came top of a recent job satisfaction survey conducted by Monster.com, that found that 72% of people were pleased with their current role if their superiors regularly told them they were appreciated.

With regards to the question of happiness for all workers, I think this is and always will be highly unlikely. The vast majority of people fail to reach their goals and end up working in a post they don’t really care about in return for a salary. This money is just enough to pay their living expenses which often means they are trapped in a cycle of disenchantment. For example, The Times recently reported that 89% of office workers would leave their jobs if they did not need the money.

In conclusion, being satisfied with your trade or profession is an important part of one’s well being and respect from one’s colleagues and fair pay can improve your level of happiness, however job satisfaction of all workers is an unrealistic prospect.

Bài viết này cô có tham khảo nguồn của trang ieltsadvantage.com. Các em thử áp dụng xem có phù hợp với cách viết của mình không nhé. Cô mong rằng nó sẽ hữu ích cho các em trong quá trình luyện tập và đạt điểm thi cao.

With love & passion!

P/s: Ngoài những bài giảng online, nếu muốn học kỹ và chất lượng hơn với các lớp học ít người, học phí thấp các em có thể tham gia các lớp luyện thi Ielts offline trên đường Nguyễn Trãi – Hà Nội của cô nhé. 



Leave a Reply

Ielts – Ngân Hoa Facebook

Liên hệ trực tiếp

Bạn có thể liên hệ trực tiếp với Facebook cá nhân của Ms. Ngân Hoa

Categories

error: Content is protected !!